Thursday, June 02, 2011

Git INFO Common Commands

Configure Git client options:
# show config options
git config --list # show all
git config --global --list # show only global
git config --local --list # show only local

# --global option impacts options at a global level
# --local option impacts options at a local level (.git/config)

# set username/email associated with client
git config --global ""
git config --global "Joe Jaz"

# add color syntax highlighting
git config --global color.status auto
git config --global color.branch auto

# set default pager and editor
git config --global core.editor vim # or set the GIT_EDITOR environment variable
git config --global core.pager less # or set the GIT_PAGER environment variable

# display an option value
git config group.value
git config

Start a new repository and import:
# In the root folder to add to version control:
git init
git init --bare  # creates a new repository (with no working copy)
git add . # add everything in directory to repo
git commit -m 'initial commit'

Making commits:
# commit specific files
git commit file1 file2 -m 'comment'

# commit all 'added' files
git commit -a -m 'comment'

# change a commit message
git commit --amend -m 'New Message'

Create new repository by cloning existing one:
git clone --bare . path_or_url_to_git_dir.git

Setting the remote repository (to push and pull from):
git remote add short_name path_or_url_to_git_dir.git
git remote add origin git://

Show remote repositories available:
git remote
git remote -v # show the url
git remote show origin  # show detail information about origin

Remove a remote repository: 
git remove repo_name

Rename a remote repository: 
git rename old_repo_name new_repo_name

Push and Pull from remote repository:
git push origin # push recent commits to remote repository called "origin"
git pull origin # pull updates from origin

Revert changes in working copy:
git clean -n
git clean --dry-run

Show file differences:
git diff   # show differences between working copy and any files staged for commit
git diff --staged   # compares staged changes with last commit
git diff --cached  # same as above for git older than 1.6.1

git difftool -t [meld|kdiff3|vimdiff|etc.] [diff criteria]
git difftool -t meld --staged
git difftool --tool=meld --staged
git difftool origin/master  --dir-diff # use difftool to diff entire dir tree

git diff -U999999999 master.. -- file.txt # shows the full file.txt, with diff markup, in the master/branch diff results

git diff --name-status brancha..branchb # shows list of changed files

Show File/s History:
git log filename # Show single file versions

# Show number of lines changed in file/s
git log -stat filename # single file
git log -stat # multiple files

# show log summaries on one line
git log --pretty=oneline # Pre-defined format
git log --pretty=format:"%h - %cD (%an) %s" # custom format (see below)
git log --pretty=format:"%h %s" --graph
git log --graph --full-history --all --color \
    Pre-Defined Pretty formats:
    format:string # where string is

        Format Strings
        %H: commit hash
        %h: abbreviated commit hash
        %T: tree hash
        %t: abbreviated tree hash
        %P: parent hashes
        %p: abbreviated parent hashes
        %an: author name
        %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))
        %ae: author email
        %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))
        %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)
        %aD: author date, RFC2822 style
        %ar: author date, relative
        %at: author date, UNIX timestamp
        %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format
        %cn: committer name
        %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))
        %ce: committer email
        %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))
        %cd: committer date
        %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style
        %cr: committer date, relative
        %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp
        %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format
        %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)
        %e: encoding
        %s: subject
        %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename
        %b: body
        %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)
        %N: commit notes
        %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}
        %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}
        %gs: reflog subject
        %Cred: switch color to red
        %Cgreen: switch color to green
        %Cblue: switch color to blue
        %Creset: reset color
        %C(…): color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option
        %m: left, right or boundary mark
        %n: newline
        %%: a raw %
        %x00: print a byte from a hex code
        %w([[,[,]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-shortlog(1).

Show git branches available:
git branch

Show all branches including remote branches:
git branch -a

Create new branch:
git branch new_branch

Change branches:
git checkout new_branch

Delete branch:
git branch -d new_branch # delete only if all changes are merged
git branch -D new_branch  # delete even if there are unmerged changes

Merge branch into current copy:
git merge --no-ff branch_to_merge_in

Resolve a Merge:
1) Edit file to resolve
2) git add conflict_file
3) git commit

Using Mergetool
git mergetool
git mergetool --tool=meld
git mergetool -t meld

Abort a merge conflict before committing:
git merge --abort

Undo a Merge:  # restores state to pre-merge
git reset --heard HEAD

Undo a local commit: 
git reset --soft HEAD^

Find the commit where two branches diverge:
git merge-base branch1 branch2

Find what branches were merged into a given branch:
git branch --merged master  # local branches only
git branch -a --merged master   # local and remote branches

Find what branches were NOT merged into a given branch:
git branch --no-merged master  # local branches only
git branch -a --no-merged master   # local and remote branches

Find what branches are merged into develop, but not master:
comm -12 <(sort <(git branch -a --no-merged origin/master)) <(sort <(git branch -a --merged origin/develop))

Copy all branches from origin to new_remote: 
git push new_remote refs/remotes/origin/*:refs/heads/*

Get number of commits per author
apt-get install git-extras